Master of Science in Pharmacy (MScPharm)

  • Total # of Credit hours
    36

Program Overview

Overview

The MScPharm Program is consistent with university’s mission and aims to provide students with the knowledge and skills that will enhance their competency as health care professionals.

The program also promotes the mission of COPHS in raising awareness about current health issues and how to address them both at national and regional levels. In addition, it contributes to improvement of the pharmacy profession in the United Arab Emirates and the Arabian Gulf region by introducing new practices in pharmaceutical sciences.

Goals

The MScPharm program is designed to equip pharmacists with the advanced knowledge and skills that will give them the expertise to promote the pharmacy profession in the fields of clinical pharmacy and pharmaceutical technology.

Program Objectives

The MScPharm Program is designed for graduates holding a degree in pharmacy

The program aims to:

  • In-depth knowledge of applied pharmaceutical sciences.

  • Advance skills in drug design, development and control.

  • Knowledge to actively participate in the development of pharmacy practice and healthcare policies.

  • Life-long learning skills, critical thinking and problem solving abilities.

  • The ability to conduct applied research in the field of health sciences.

Degree Completion Requirements

The MScPharm Program consists of 2 concentration areas (clinical pharmacy and pharmaceutical technology) taught in 36 credit hours spread over three semesters (full-time students) to five semesters (part-time students).

These include 14 credit hours core curriculum courses (12 credit hours of college requirements and 2 credit hours of university requirements), 22 credit hours of concentration courses, which includes 6 credit hours for the research thesis.

Admission Requirement

Admission to the MScPharm program is open for graduates of accredited Bachelor of Pharmacy programs (BPharm).

Required Documents:
  • An officially attested BPharm degree from an accredited institution.

  • At least two letters of academic references submitted in a sealed envelope.

  •  Other documents which the program may require.

  • Other general admission requirements, please click here.
Other Admission Requirements:

ii-a: Full Admission:

For full admission to the MScPharm program, an applicant must:

  1. Hold a BPharm degree from an accredited institution. A Higher Diploma is not equivalent to a baccalaureate degree and does not qualify an applicant for admission to Master’s programs.

  2. Agree to be a full-time student for two years. However, part-time students can be accepted after consideration of the student’s background, present position and availability for study and research.

ii-b: Conditional admission requirements for Master’s level programs

 Conditional admission due to non fulfillment of English proiciency or non fulfillment of GPA requirements:

For more detalis, please click here.

 

iii. Transfer Admissions Policy

  1. Only students transferring from a federal of licensed institutions in the UAE or recognized foreign institutions of higher learning are eligible for admission.

  2. An officially attested BPharm degree, earned in a discipline appropriate for the prospective graduate degree.

  3. Transfer students must meet the English language proficiency requirement of the program to which they transfer.

  4. Official transcripts of credit earned from all institutions of higher education previously attended.

  5. Students who are in a good academic standing (a minimum cumulative grade point average of 3.0 on a 4.0. scale, or equivalent) can transfer to a graduate program of study similar to that which the student is transferring.

  6. Transfer graduate students program credits only for courses relevant to the degree that provide equivalent learning outcomes and in which the student earned a grade of B (3.0 on a 4.0 scale) or better.

  7. The applicant will be informed for transfer admissions or re-admission of the transfer credits earned for previous courses.

  8. AU does not grant transfer students a graduate degree unless they successfully complete at least 75 percent of the credit hours of the graduate program at AU including the majority of the final year courses at AU.

  9. AU does not grant credit twice for substantially the same course taken at two different institutions.

Enrollment and Graduation Data
  Academic Year
Students 2014-2015 2015-2016 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019
Enrollment 19 11 13 16 19
Graduation 10 23 17 6 17

Program Learning Outcomes

Learning outcomes of the MScPharm program are intended to improve knowledge, skill and career of the graduates.

Upon completion of the program, graduates will be able to:

  • Apply their in-depth knowledge of the field to promote pharmacy practice.

  • Demonstrate that they have gained advanced practical skills in instrumental analysis, clinical testing and quality control of drugs.

  • Evaluate therapeutic management of diseases based on knowledge of drug design, pharmacokinetics and pharmacotherapy.

  • Demonstrate their ability to solve problems and suggest solutions in complex health issues related to local community.

  • Demonstrate their ability to conduct healthcare related research.

  • Demonstrate that they have gained skills in communication with other health providers and beneficiaries.

Program Structure and Credit Hours

CORE CURRICULUM COURSES (14 C.H.)

Course ID

Course Title

Total CH

Lectures

Clinical Training

Pre-requisites

Type*

PHM127

Research Methodology and Biostatistics

2

2

0

Statistics

UR

PHM101

Clinical Pharmacokinetics

2

2

0

Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics. II

CR

PHM106

Pathophysiology & Pharmacotherapy I

2

2

0

Clinical Pharmacy I & II

CR

PHM107

Pathophysiology & Pharmacotherapy II

2

2

0

Clinical Pharmacy I & II

CR

PHM109

Clinical Biochemistry

2

2

0

Biochemistry I &II

CR

PHM117

Pharmacoeconomics

2

2

0

Clinical Pharmacy I & II

Pharm. Legislation

CR

PHM119

Pharmacovigilance

2

2

0

 

CR

 

Total

14

14

0

   

* UR=University Requirement

CR=College Requirement.

CE= College Elective

 

Courses Descriptions

Course Description for Clinical Pharmacy Concentration

PHM127 Research Methodology and Biostatistics (2-0-2)

This course is comprised of lectures designed to advance student knowledge on different study designs to be able to distinguish, categorize and critique them and use them appropriately to provide evidence-based practice. The course will expand students’ knowledge in specific biostatistics relevant to clinical and pharmaceutical researches including the types of data, summarizing and presenting data, types of data distributions, inferential statistics and correlation and regression. This enables the student to critically evaluate pharmaceutical and medical researches.

Pre-requisite: Statistics (STA112)

PHM101 Clinical Pharmacokinetics (2-0-2)

This course is designed to provide students with advanced pharmacokinetics of what the body does to the drug with special emphasis on clinical applications. The course shall focus on the application of compartmental & non-compartmental models to determine various pharmacokinetic parameters including; absorption, distribution, apparent volume of distribution and elimination, following single and multiple IV and oral doses. The course shall provide students with concepts of non-linear pharmacokinetic models and their clinical applications. Principles of clinical pharmacokinetics will be thoroughly covered with special emphasis on pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenomics variability, therapeutic drug monitoring, individualization of drug therapy, kinetics of drug interaction and pharmacokinetic approach to new drug discovery.

Pre-requisites: Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics I & II (PHA311 & PHA312)

PHM106 Pathophysiology & Pharmacotherapy I (2-0-2)

The course deals with a compressive over view in the field of Pharmacology and therapeutics as commonly practice today. The course covering:

  1. The study in depth the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus.
  2. Advanced knowledge in pharmacological aspects and therapeutic applications of drugs acting on cardiovascular diseases and hypoglycemic.
  3. Advanced knowledge of the non-pharmacotherapeutic approach of the management of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus.
Pre-requisites: Clinical Pharmacy I (PHA462) & Clinical Pharmacy II & First Aid (PHA463)

PHM534 Clinical Biochemistry (2-0-2)

This course is designated to provide a comprehensive survey of the clinical aspects of diseases and their effect on body chemistry. Topics include Lipid metabolism and lipoproteins disorders, renal function tests, liver function tests, pancreatic function tests, metabolic aspects of bone diseases, and main hematological disorders.

 Pre-requisites: Biochemistry I & II (PHA251 & PHA252)

PHM512 Clinical Microbiology (2-0-2)

Clinical microbiology course is designed to provide knowledge to understand the signs, symptoms, cause, diagnosis, treatments and prevention of various infectious diseases. 

Antimicrobial selection and development of pharmacotherapeutic plans for patients with specific infectious diseases.

Pre-requisite: Clinical Pharmacy I (PHA462) & Clinical Pharmacy II & First Aid (PHA463)

PHM119 Pharmacovigilance (2-0-2)

The course aimed to describe concepts and principles of pharmacoepidemiology in the broad context of therapeutic evaluation and drug decision-making.

It prepares students to develop a methodology to study medication use in large number of population, reports adverse drug reaction and use post-marketing surveillances, drug utilization reviews in order to study the safety and efficacy of medications.

Pre-requisites: N/A

PHM107 Pharmaceutical Care (2-0-2)

The graduates will be equipped with knowledge, skills, and practice capabilities to perform a clinical evaluation of the usage of medications in the hospital, also evaluation of drug safety and efficacy, evaluation of prescribing habits. This subject will establish the knowledge of medical research, expose students to different types of studies including descriptive and comparative, observational and interventional.

Pre-requisites: Clinical Pharmacy I (PHA462) & Clinical Pharmacy II & First Aid (PHA463)

PHM107 Pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy – II (2-0-2)

Pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy courses are designed to provide advanced knowledge to understand the rationale for various therapeutic strategies. Therapeutic drug regimens will be presented as well to define appropriate doses, reasonable therapeutics goals, necessary monitoring parameters, clinically significant drug-drug interactions and adverse effects of the various medications. Establish a individualized pharmacotherapeutic plan using evidence based medicine. Pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy II will focus on respiratory, renal, muscular and gastrointestinal diseases.

Pre-requisites: Clinical Pharmacy I & Clinical Pharmacy II & First Aid (PHA462 & PHA463)

PHM117 Pharmacoeconomics (2-0-2)

Clinical concepts of pharmacoeconomic efficiency, pharmacoeconomics methods, and drug therapy outcome measures are presented with an emphasis on the practical application of such principles.

Pre-requisites: Clinical Pharmacy I, Clinical Pharmacy II & First Aid (PHA462 & PHA463) & Pharm. Legislation (PHA465)

PHM128 Pathophysiology & Pharmacotherapy III (2-0-2)

Pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy courses are designed to provide advanced knowledge to understand the rationale for various therapeutic strategies. Therapeutic drug regimens will be presented as well to define appropriate doses, reasonable therapeutics goals, necessary monitoring parameters, clinically significant drug-drug interactions and adverse effects of the various medications. Establish individualized pharmacotherapeutic plan using evidence based medicine. Pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy III will focus on CNS, blood, cancer, selected infectious diseases and obesity.

Pre-requisite: Clinical Pharmacy I (PHA462) & Clinical Pharmacy II & First Aid (PHA463)

PH215 Medicine Management and Community Care (2-0-2)

The course offer students an insight into pharmacy and medicines management with the emphasis on evidence-based practice. Students will be introduced to the concepts of pharmacy practice, risk assessment, health promotion and clinical governance. Course comprises the following unit:

  1. international pharmacy practice;
  2. Evidence based medicine and critical appraisal
  3. Clinical practice and formularies guidelines
  4. Pharmacy management
  5. Prescribing with the view of patient’s age (elderly, pediatrics), patient’s clinical situation (pregnancy, liver or renal disease) and morbidity or adverse drug reactions.
  6. Public health and health promotion.
Pre-requisites: Clinical Pharmacy I (PHA462) & Clinical Pharmacy II & First Aid (PHA463)

PHM120 Drug Abuse (2-0-2)

This course provides an overview of the fundamental concepts in drug/substance abuse. The course contents will help to introduce participants to terminologies used in drug/substance abuse as well as their definitions. Participants will be provided with a comprehensive overview of the drugs of abuse that are most commonly used, in addition to their adverse effects on human health and society. Methods of treatment and client education will also be addressed. Laws and regulations concerning drug/substance abuse will be covered.

Pre-requisite: N/A

PHM105 Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2-0-2)

In this course, the student will be acquainted with up to date medical practices, and the main differences between these practices with special emphasis on Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). The course shall cover all systems of CAM that are based on different philosophies, including; alternative medical system, mind-body system, biological-based system, manipulative body-based system, energy system and blood cupping. In addition, for each of the above systems, the course shall cover different philosophies, diagnostic techniques, therapies, indications, and contraindications.

Pre-requisite: Phytochemistry (PHA347)

PHM518 Application of Radiopharmaceuticals (2-0-2)

This course covers the fundamentals of nuclear pharmacy, radiopharmaceuticals compounding, stability prediction, packaging as well as uses and applications of radiopharmaceuticals as a diagnostic and therapeutic agent. The nuclear pharmacy practice guideline of APHA Academy of Pharmacy Practice and Management (APHA-APPM) will be discussed to cover the responsibility of pharmacist in maintaining quality of radiopharmaceuticals, safety of coworkers and environments and providing pharmaceutical care to patient with optimal outcome.

Pre-requisites: Medicinal & Pharmaceutical Chemistry I & II (PHA354 & PHA356)

PHM131 Total Parenteral Nutrition (2-0-2)

This instructional course has been designed to provide current conceptual and operational knowledge and understanding of TPN and in providing nutritional support, this course contains current practices for best patient outcomes.

Pre-requisites: Biochemistry I & II (PHA251, PHA252)

PHM540 Research Thesis (stage I)

PHM640 Research Thesis (stage II)

PHM650 Research Thesis (stage III)

This course aims to produce advanced level of research skills in clinical pharmacy. Research new ideas, encourage and facilitate the development of advanced pharmacy services through primary research. Produce pharmacists capable of conceiving, implementing, and evaluating patient care services that promote the rational, safe, effective, and economical use of drug therapy. It must be conducted according to the accepted AJMAN UNIVERSITY methods of scientific investigation, and be presented bound in the standard university format, by the end of the course.

Pre-requisite for stage II: PHM540 Research Thesis (stage I)
Pre-requisite for stage III: PHM125 Research Thesis (stage II)

PHM129 Clinical pharmacy clerkship I (0-8-2)

Students are expected to become involved in the provision of primary care, medication maintenance activities and improvement of rational drug therapy in the practice environment. Strong emphasis is placed on patient counselling and interviewing skills. Develop students’ skills to provide pharmaceutical care to a variety of patients. While interacting with health care professionals to optimize drug therapy outcomes, students will develop an advanced inter-professional relationship with all medical teams.

Pre-requisite:N/A

PHM230 Clinical pharmacy clerkship II (0-8-2)

Students are expected to become involved in the provision of primary care, medication maintenance activities and improvement of rational drug therapy in the practice environment. Strong emphasis is placed on patient counselling and interviewing skills. Develop students’ skills to provide pharmaceutical care to a variety of patients. While interacting with health care professionals to optimize drug therapy outcomes, students will develop an advanced inter-professional relationship with all medical teams.

Pre-requisite: Clinical Pharmacokinetics (PHM101)

Course Description for Pharmaceutical Technology Concentration

PHM127 Research Methodology and Biostatistics (2-0-2)

This course is comprised of lectures designed to advance student knowledge on different study designs to be able to distinguish, categorize and critique them and use them appropriately to provide evidence-based practice. The course will expand students’ knowledge in specific biostatistics relevant to clinical and pharmaceutical researches including the types of data, summarizing and presenting data, types of data distributions, inferential statistics and correlation and regression. This enables the student to critically evaluate pharmaceutical and medical researches.

Pre-requisite: Statistics (STA112)

PHM101 Clinical Pharmacokinetics (2-0-2)

This course is designed to provide students with advanced pharmacokinetics of what the body does to the drug with special emphasis on clinical applications. The course shall focus on the application of compartmental & non-compartmental models to determine various pharmacokinetic parameters including; absorption, distribution, apparent volume of distribution and elimination, following single and multiple IV and oral doses. The course shall provide students with concepts of non-linear pharmacokinetic models and their clinical applications. Principles of clinical pharmacokinetics will be thoroughly covered with special emphasis on pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenomics variability, therapeutic drug monitoring, individualization of drug therapy, kinetics of drug interaction and pharmacokinetic approach to new drug discovery.

Pre-requisites: Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics I and II (PHA311 & PHA312)

PHM106 Pathophysiology & Pharmacotherapy I (2-0-2)

The course deals with a compressive over view in the field of Pharmacology and therapeutics as commonly practice today. The course covering:

  1. The study in depth the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus.
  2. Advanced knowledge in pharmacological aspects and therapeutic applications of drugs acting on cardiovascular diseases and hypoglycemic.
  3. Advanced knowledge of the non-pharmacotherapeutic approach of the management of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus.
Pre-requisites: Clinical Pharmacy I (PHA462) & Clinical Pharmacy II & first Aid (PHA463)

PHM534 Clinical Biochemistry (2-0-2)

This course is designated to provide a comprehensive survey of the clinical aspects of diseases and their effect on body chemistry. Topics include Lipid metabolism and lipoproteins disorders, renal function tests, liver function tests, pancreatic function tests, metabolic aspects of bone diseases, and main hematological disorders.

 Pre-requisites: Biochemistry I & II (PHA251 & PHA252)

PHM119 Pharmacovigilance (2-0-2)

The course aimed to describe concepts and principles of pharmacoepidemiology in the broad context of therapeutic evaluation and drug decision-making.

It prepares students to develop a methodology to study medication use in large number of population, reports adverse drug reaction and use post-marketing surveillances, drug utilization reviews in order to study the safety and efficacy of medications.

Pre-requisites: N/A

PHM107 Pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy – II (2-0-2)

Pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy courses are designed to provide advanced knowledge to understand the rationale for various therapeutic strategies. Therapeutic drug regimens will be presented as well to define appropriate doses, reasonable therapeutics goals, necessary monitoring parameters, clinically significant drug-drug interactions and adverse effects of the various medications. Establish a individualized pharmacotherapeutic plan using evidence based medicine. Pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy II will focus on respiratory, renal, muscular and gastrointestinal diseases.

Pre-requisites: Clinical Pharmacy I (PHA462) & Clinical Pharmacy II & First Aid (PHA463)

PHM513 Products of Biotechnology (2-0-2)

This course is designed to acquaint students with the field of biotechnology. Topics will include introduction, definitions, history of biotechnology, & major areas of contribution of biotechnology. Chromosomes, biotechnological techniques of recombinant DNA technology, including cloning of DNA, PCR, Gene libraries (Genomics libraries, & c-DNA libraries), DNA sequencing, Sanger sequencing & Human Genome Project shall be discussed. Monoclonal antibodies, antisense oligo-nucleotides and gene therapies will be thoroughly covered. The course also entails methods adopted for preparation of biotechnology drug products and their evaluation, stability and storage. The current marketed biotechnology drug products including therapeutic proteins, as well as the future prospects of biotechnology drug products shall be covered.

Pre-requisite: Clinical Biochemistry (PHM534) 

PHM510 Applied Instrumental Analysis (1.5-1-2)

The course provides students with a comprehensive up to date overview of the field of instrumental analysis. Upon completion, students will have acquired an in-depth knowledge in major instrumental analysis methods available covering the concepts and principles, advantages and disadvantages, limitations and applicability of each method.

The course will provide the students with advanced and up to date instrumental analysis methods and experimental techniques including electrochemical methods, absorption and emission spectroscopy UV-Visible spectrophotometry, fluorimetry and phosphometry, atomic emission spectroscopy Raman spectroscopy, X ray methods, radiochemical methods chromatographic methods, NMR, IR and mass spectrometry.

Pre-requisites: Instrumental Analysis I & II (PHA245 & PHA346)

PHM515 Chemistry of Natural Products (1.5-1-2)

Chemistry of natural products deals with the historical and contemporary role of secondary natural products in health care and commerce. The course covers the classification of natural products according to their biosynthetic origins and chemical properties. A special emphasis will be placed on how chemical structure affects the physiological function of various natural products. These "structure activity relationships" help us learn about the interaction of small molecules in living systems and pharmacology of drugs.

Pre-requisite: Phytochemistry (PHA347)

PHM117 Pharmacoeconomics (2-0-2)

Clinical concepts of pharmacoeconomic efficiency, pharmacoeconomics methods, and drug therapy outcome measures are presented with an emphasis on the practical application of such principles.

Pre-requisites: Clinical Pharmacy I (PHA462) & Clinical Pharmacy & First Aid (PHA463), Pharm. Legislation (PHA465)

PHM631 Novel Drug Delivery Systems (2-2-3)

The development of novel drug delivery systems has improved the efficacy and safety of many important therapeutic agents. Understanding the release characteristics of drugs from these dosage forms is essential for their optimal use.

This course is designed to cover principles & concepts of modified release drug delivery systems including extended release, delayed release & targeted release drug products for oral, trans-mucosal, trans-dermal, intra-ocular, intra-vaginal, intra-uterine & parenteral administration. The course includes potential advantages & limitations as well as drugs candidates for oral extended release drug products. The course will also describe advanced concepts applied in the design, formulation & development of extended release products; including principle of design, excipients used, biopharmaceutical factors influencing design strategy, dosage form selection & drug release mechanisms.

The course shall also discuss various biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic & clinical aspects of extended release products as well as official in-vivo & in-vitro tests used to evaluate extended release drug delivery systems. The course will also cover nanoparticles as potential tools for drug delivery & recent advances in novel drug delivery systems including liposomes.

Pre-requisite: Clinical Pharmacokinetics (PHA101) & Organic Chemistry

PHM634 Advances in Pharmaceutical Technology (2-2-3)

This course is designed to provide students with various important aspects of quality assurance, cGMP, quality audit, and process validation; including regulatory and quality compliance as applied to pharmaceutical industries. The students will also be provided with in-depth knowledge in the organization and operation of the major departments of pharmaceutical companies, as well as ways of dealing with regulatory and compliance issues. Additionally, the course will provide advanced information on drug discovery & development process, including INDA, NDA & ANDA, drug master file & therapeutic equivalent codes. Other essential topics such as production & operational management, production planning & control shall be covered. In addition, various in-process quality control tests needed to assess some sterile and non-sterile products shall also be discussed. The course will also include pilot plant and scale up techniques, design, construction and operation of clean rooms as well as recent advances in packaging techniques for various pharmaceutical dosage forms, including stability & regulatory aspects of packaging.

Pre-requisite: Clinical Pharmacokinetics (PHM101)

PHM512 Clinical Microbiology (2-0-2)

Clinical microbiology course is designed to provide knowledge to understand the signs, symptoms, cause, diagnosis, treatments and prevention of various infectious diseases. 

Antimicrobial selection and development of pharmacotherapeutic plans for patients with specific infectious diseases.

Pre-requisite: Clinical pharmacy II & first aid ( PHA463 ).

PHM105 Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2-0-2)

In this course, the student will be acquainted with up to date medical practices, and the main differences between these practices with special emphasis on Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). The course shall cover all systems of CAM that are based on different philosophies, including; alternative medical system, mind-body system, biological-based system, manipulative body-based system, energy system and blood cupping. In addition, for each of the above systems, the course shall cover different philosophies, diagnostic techniques, therapies, indications, and contraindications.

Pre-requisite: Phytochemistry (PHA347)

PHM518 Application of Radiopharmaceuticals (2-0-2)

This course covers the fundamentals of nuclear pharmacy, radiopharmaceuticals compounding, stability prediction, packaging as well as uses and applications of radiopharmaceuticals as a diagnostic and therapeutic agent. The nuclear pharmacy practice guideline of APHA Academy of Pharmacy Practice and Management (APHA-APPM) will be discussed to cover the responsibility of pharmacist in maintaining quality of radiopharmaceuticals, safety of coworkers and environments and providing pharmaceutical care to patient with optimal outcome.

Pre-requisites: Medicinal & Pharmaceutical Chemistry I & II (PHA354 & PHA356)

PHM514 Chemistry of Heterocycles (1.5-1-2)

This course deals with advance applications of structure and theory to the study of organic heterocyclic compounds and their nomenclature, preparations and reaction mechanisms.

Pre-requisites: Medicinal & Pharmaceutical Chemistry I & II (PHA354 & PHA356)

PHM540 Research Thesis (stage I)

PHM640 Research Thesis (stage II)

PHM650 Research Thesis (stage III)

This course aims to produce advanced level of research skills in clinical pharmacy. Research new ideas, encourage and facilitate the development of advanced pharmacy services through primary research. Produce pharmacists capable of conceiving, implementing, and evaluating patient care services that promote the rational, safe, effective, and economical use of drug therapy. It must be conducted according to the accepted AJMAN UNIVERSITY methods of scientific investigation, and be presented bound in the standard university format, by the end of the course.

Pre-requisite for stage II: PHM540 Research Thesis (stage I)
Pre-requisite for stage III: PHM125 Research Thesis (stage II)